ISSRA Papers <p>ISSRA Papers is an annual publication of <a href="">Institute for Strategic Studies, Research and Analysis (ISSRA)</a>, National Defence University. The Journal is a unique publication of the country which promotes awareness and understanding of the issues related to governance and public policy. ISSRA Papers welcomes contributions from all around the world and has a wide range of readers that include students, researchers, experts and policy makers. Articles appearing in the journal are selected after a rigorous scrutiny and blind peer reviews at home and abroad. The Higher Education Commission of Pakistan duly recognises its regular publishing since 2009 and indexes it in its Journal Recognition System (HJRS).</p> en-US (Editor) (Webmaster) Fri, 30 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0500 OJS 60 CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM OF PAKISTAN <p><em>Every state enacts and publishes laws according to its peculiar socio-economic and cultural peculiarities. Pakistan inherited prevalent laws from the British Common Law. Pakistan Penal Code (1860) and Criminal Procedure Code (1898) govern dispensation of criminal justice system in Pakistan. Through reformation efforts have been ongoing to reform of the criminal justice system to accommodate socio-economic and cultural challenges, however, same has not been successful due to host of political, social and institutional issues. However, despite challenges, the system has delivered albeit at slow and selective pace. Apropos, there remain gaps in the system which are reflected though Pakistan’s standing in international indices and a general dissatisfaction of masses. The inadequacy of the criminal justice system has been considered as manipulative, cumbersome, slow and inadequate. The inadequacies have impinged upon the governance and national security domains of the State causing negative outlook. Consequently, every stratum of the internal social order, socio-economic and human terrain of national security and principles of governance are witnessing a gradual decline. Consequent outcome is violation of citizen-state contract hence erosion of public trust in the system. This paper undertakes a comprehensive analysis of the Criminal Justice System of Pakistan, focused on reasons for non/ delayed dispensation of justice and its impact on governance &amp; national security, leading to policy recommendation for reforms.</em></p> Ali Asghar Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0500 ANALYSING THE ROLE OF RELIGION IN POLITICAL STRUCTURE OF PAKISTAN <p><em>Religion and politics are two different domains but are correlated in Pakistan. Its roots can be traced from colonial India where religion had been used to legitimize political actions and energize the public to boost movements. Pakistan being an ideological state prioritises Islam in all functional institutions and politics remained its epicenter right from the Objective Resolution (1949) which raised the question of minority’s rights. Later, Bhutto’s Islamic Socialism, Zia’s Islamisation, Moderate Civilian rule and Musharraf’s Enlightened Moderation make the situation even more complex and engendered intolerance and radical approach which resulted in the tragic incident of Lal Masjid and emergence of Pakistan Awami Tahreek and Tehreek-e-Labaik Pakistan. Where the real religious issues were left behind and cosmetic approach and engineered religious leaders directed the general masses that damaged the social fabric of society.</em></p> Dr. Zubaida Zafar; Ms. Sheeba Irfan , Mr. Mubbshar Ali Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0500 ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN COVID-19: EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN <p><em>This study investigates the public sphere role of social media during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Pakistan. </em><em>The pandemic has </em><em>severely affected Pakistani society, especially the working class. Young, middle, and lower middle-class, </em><em>during the religious</em><em> festivals, did not care about adopting preventive measures against COVID-19. Besides a huge number of people being hospitalized and dying, the pandemic also brought catastrophic social and economic misers to people in Pakistan. The results show that</em><em> people used social media intensively for COVID-19 and trust</em><em> government information to seek awareness about the pandemic.</em> <em>The study found a relationship between the variables of life-threatening factors such as perceived severity, immunity, and age and the adoption of preventive measures against COVID-19.&nbsp; </em><em>Along with scientific treatment, many people in Pakistan </em><em>believe in the Islamic curation against COVID-19.&nbsp; </em></p> Syed Abdul Siraj ; Ms. Noor Maryam Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0500 RACISM AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE IN THE ERA OF GLOBALISATION <p><em>In essence, globalisation has brought together the nation-states and societies with more interaction among the masses. In a way, there has to be economic egalitarianism, social freedom and coexistence besides political democracy without discrimination of religion, caste, creed and colour.&nbsp; This is the essence of the UN Charter and subsequent global covenants for securing and protecting human rights. Unlike their paper existence, the practical trends are different at the global level. In last few decades, millions of human beings have suffered crimes against humanity based on racial discrimination, gender inequality, caste system and above all discrimination on religious basis. Racism is the state of approval that features and capabilities can be ascribed to people simply based on their caste, creed and racial grouping. Besides, it is an acceptance that, some races are superior to other races and so on. This powerful tool has been used since centuries for instilling the element of fear and hate for others during peace and war. This research aims to analyse the worldwide trends of racial discrimination as a challenge to the global governance system while analysing the myopic response from the international community. These evidences are evaluated in the light of religious texts paving way for a dialogue-based approach recommended to confront the realities of racism in our society.</em></p> Dr. Muhammad Khan ; Ms. Sidra Khan Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0500 RE-VISITING THE TRADITIONAL CONFLICT: ANALYSIS OF KASHMIR DISPUTE USING CONSTRUCTIVIST FRAMEWORK <p><em>This article seeks to explicate the interpretative analysis of Kashmir dispute. The epistemological shift in the global politics requires the appreciation of endogenous and exogenous factors. The Kashmir conflict is a perpetual strand between India-Pakistan which re-assert the conflictual nature of political relations. Both the states employ respective ideational framework to legitimise their claim to achieve the respective political objectives. Pakistan espouses the ideational factors grounded on Two-Nation Theory to socially construct their narrative regarding the Kashmir dispute. In India, the differential identity of INC and BJP in terms of secular and ethno-nationalism respectively, shape the contemporary proclamation over the dispute territory. The change in the culture of anarchy from Hobbesian to Kantian seems distant after the revocation of the special status of Indian Illegally Occupied Jammu &amp; Kashmir (IIOJK) by the BJP government. The constructive intervention of international society and regional organisations would be required to safeguard the geo-political and geo-economic interests of the regional states. Followed by empirical analysis, the way forward and future recommendations would be delineated to critically reconnoitre the discursive strategies employed by political leaders for understanding the non-material factors which shape the social reality of India-Pakistan relations.</em></p> Mr. Zaid Bin Inam Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0500 UNDER THE SPECTRE OF INSECURITY MAKING SENSE OF THE FORMATION OF PAKISTAN’S NATIONAL NARRATIVE: A REALIST PERSPECTIVE <p><em>Narratives are an important part of nation-building. National narratives not only inculcate a sense of self; they also address a nation’s sense of security as well as insecurities. National narratives are an outcome of a nation’s collective historical experience and the ideas on which it is built. States facing security challenges and situated among or in a hostile neighbourhood, use their national narrative to achieve alignment both internally and externally. Pakistan’s national narrative is a testament of it.&nbsp; Since 1947, it has been facing threats to its national security. Pakistan’s national or meta-narrative addresses all such concerns. This paper focuses on the formation of Pakistan’s national narrative and the factors involved in its formation. Grounded in the Realism school of international relations theory, the paper overviews and critically analyses Pakistan’s national narrative and its contributing factors. This is followed by the development of a “structural–ideational framework” to make sense of the process of the formation of Pakistan’s national narrative.</em></p> Mr. Muhammad Nazir ; Dr. Rizwan Zeb Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0500 CRITICAL ISSUES OF GOVERNANCE IN PAKISTAN: STRATEGIES AND SOLUTIONS <p><em>The study aims at the critical issues related to governance in Pakistan. The current situation has emerged even into a worse state; therefore, it is essential to address the situation and provide strategies and solutions. The study is qualitative in nature, and based on 170 research articles, reports and published book chapters to extract the underlying principles to tackle the issue. Two steps were followed: 1) extensive review of existing secondary data on governance and 2) interviews of the experts of governance. The second approach was employed to substantiate the first and also to counter-check and confirm. Based on both approaches, the study deliberated upon numerous issues by highlighting their seriousness and criticality. Employing content analysis and analysing the feedback of the experts, the study presents important strategies and solutions in the form of golden principles. Six golden principles are presented with the overarching role of citizen participation. </em></p> Dr. Muhammad Zia-ur-Rehman Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0500 CIVIL SERVICES REFORMS: A ROAD TO COMPREHENSIVE NATIONAL SECURITY OF PAKISTAN <p>Civil service is the driver of state machinery and its efficiency determines state’s effectiveness in performing its core functions. Pakistan inherited 95 civil servants and around 300 class-1 officers at the time of independence. This core group had to meet the challenges with meager resources. The civil service not only managed to restore order, taxation and communication but it went on devising a long-term development plan. In 1960s, this group was declared ‘agents of change’ and ‘engine of growth and development’. Yet with the passage of time, degeneration crept in; turning the glorious past into a dream. Over the years, multiple commissions have been constituted for civil service reforms; however, these efforts have not been able to effect discernible change in service delivery. It therefore, necessitates a thorough analysis of existing structures and underlying causes in order to transform our civil service into an efficient and robust organ of state contributing to the comprehensive national security of Pakistan.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Mr. Qazi Jamil Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0500 ROLE OF MEDIA IN INCITING VIOLENCE IN THE SOCIETY: THE CASE STUDY OF AURAT MARCH <p>Contemporary society is infested with several social evils such as violence, antagonism, addiction etc. Pakistani media, instead of playing its socially constructive role, i.e., to inform and educate the public while maintaining social harmony in the state, is exploiting its power to inform while reconstructing reality by applying certain strategies, to incite violent acts in society. The study approached the issue by opting case study method while qualitatively analysing the events of “Aurat March”. To analyse social-psychological dimensions of the phenomenon, the study adopted the psychological theoretical framework of “The General Aggression Model”. In context of “incite violence”, study focused on identifying “short-term” effects on the social-psychological domains of individuals, while keeping the expected long-term effects, integral to the attention of the study. The findings exposed the intervening role of Pakistani media between the social issue of “Aurat March” and violent acts. These violent acts are the response to the incitation by media due to extensive coverage and projection and propagation of controversy and negative aspects of “Aurat March” as a movement. Through the case study, it has been proven that “media controls the minds and reconstructs societies”. The study recommends carrying out further studies on the social-psychological impact of media, to spread awareness in the “Public Sphere” to be able to control their minds, instead of being controlled and influenced by media.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Ms. Sana Mahmood Qureshi Hashmi Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0500 PAKISTAN AIR LINES (PIA) – A CASE STUDY <p>Pakistan International Airlines (PIA), established in 1955, after witnessing the days of glory has declined to the highest loss-making enterprise in Pakistan. Its global footprint and reputation are at a loss with every passing day. PIA faces challenges not only on international fronts but also with local airlines on various routes to the Middle East. The current state of affairs cannot be attributed to one factor but rather a multitude of factors primarily from operational mismanagement and lack of accountability to the adverse impact of policies. This paper highlights the commercial aviation environment and trends, factors of success to present times of downfall, emphasizing the contributing factors.&nbsp; This paper also focuses on strategies and efforts that can be made to ensure the resolution of present PIA issues and reconstruct the breakages that made the successful airline go to the verge of doom. The qualitative paper in nature is primarily based on unstructured interviews of different management tiers of PIA, Pakistan Civil Aviation Authority (PCAA), Aviation Division, professionals from the aviation industry and union representatives.</p> Syed Asghar; Dr. Hasan Mohsin Copyright (c) 2023 Fri, 22 Dec 2023 00:00:00 +0500