ISSRA Papers https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site <p>ISSRA Papers is an annual publication of Institute for Strategic Studies, Research and Analysis (ISSRA), National Defence University. The Journal is a unique publication of the country which promotes awareness and understanding of the issues related to governance and public policy. ISSRA Papers welcomes contributions from all around the world and has a wide range of readers that include students, researchers, experts and policy makers. Articles appearing in the journal are selected after a rigorous scrutiny and blind peer reviews at home and abroad.</p> en-US editor-issrapapers@ndu.edu.pk (Editor) webmaster@ndu.edu.pk (Webmaster) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 OJS 3.3.0.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 CONTROLS OVER ADMINISTRATIVE DISCRETION: A CASE LAW STUDY IN THE CONTEXT OF PAKISTAN https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/100 <p><em>With the evolution of modern welfare state, state functionaries have to perform numerous functions and discretion has to be accepted as a necessary evil. In order to avoid misuse of authority, a mechanism of legislative, administrative, and judicial controls have been devised. With the help of qualitative research methodology, this research aims to investigate how to keep control over the administrative actions without creating hindrance for the state officials in performance of their duties. Despite the fact that there are two competing views regarding conferring of discretion, the same could be adjusted with the help of reasonable controls at various stages: pre-conferment and post-conferment, which can be further categorized into legislative, administrative, and judicial controls. Nevertheless, these controls have to be exercised with utmost diligence so as to avoid apprehension of interbranch conflict and to ensure smooth functioning of the executive authorities. </em></p> Bakht Munir; Ali Nawaz Khan , Naveed Ahmad Copyright (c) 2022 https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/100 Wed, 02 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0500 DEFINING CYBER WARFARE https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/102 <p><em>Technological advancement is always a disruptive process; its impact on society, economics, politics, military and strategic affairs are profound but it takes a certain amount of time before the effects are visible. Cyberspace has been termed as the battlefield of the 21st century. It is considered the most potent threat to international security. With the speed of technological advancement, its wide-ranging affects, and its potential weaponization, a comprehensive study to reconcile the international legal paradigm and cyber warfare is warranted. This article is a discourse analysis to examine the unique nature of cyberspace, the taxonomy and role of cyber operations in the modern-day strategic sphere, and how international law interprets different kind of cyber operations.</em></p> Khawaja Dawood Tariq Copyright (c) 2022 https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/102 Wed, 02 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0500 THE VIOLENT TOLL OF KINETIC COUNTERTERRORISM: REVITALIZING NON-KINETIC COUNTERTERRORISM MODEL https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/103 <p><em>The world has been witnessing various waves of terrorism and violent extremism for more than last 2000 years. The modern wave of terrorism has its roots in the post-Cold War era, with rigorous transformation since the incident of 9/11 in 2001. The consequent Global War on Terror, which manifested an unparalleled global kinetic response, has now again instigated a revitalized inquiry into how terrorism and violent extremism ends. This question is in fact twofold. On one hand, it asks the underlying causes to be explored, that result in individuals commencing terrorist activities. On the other hand, this has motivated and stimulated implantation of some innovative ‘soft’ and ‘non-kinetic’ counterterrorism approaches, largely by and in Muslim majority countries. These alternative approaches were then also imported by many Western societies to tackle the challenges left unanswered and even sometimes caused by the kinetic counterterrorism approaches. This paper discusses the violent toll of counterterrorism strategies under the kinetic approach of Global War on Terror and how it has negatively contributed in the management of terrorism and violent extremism. The paper further highlights the global shift from kinetic counterterrorism strategies to non-kinetic approaches while furthering the debate to suggest a successful strategy based on some common factors in the successful counterterrorism approaches around the world. </em></p> Sobia Khan; Umar Sohail , Syed Taimoor Shah Copyright (c) 2022 https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/103 Wed, 02 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0500 PAKISTAN’S PANDEMIC RESPONSE: AN OVERVIEW OF THE FIRST WAVE OF COVID-19 https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/104 <p><em>Pakistan registered its first COVID-19 related deaths in last week of February 2020. </em><em>&nbsp;South Asia as a region remained considerably affected by the deadly pandemic with countries like India, Iran and Bangladesh registering a high rate of fatalities and alarming rise in positive cases. Initial impact of the disease on Pakistan was quite severe and with a weak economy and broken public health system, it was anticipated that Pakistan might not be able to withstand the economic, social and psychological impact of the pandemic. However, the Pakistan government adopted the whole-of-the-nation approach by integrating its well-organized military institution along with other state and civilian institutions and tackled the pandemic proactively. The paper, using the Explanatory Case Study technique, analyses Pakistan’s dynamic response mechanism from February to October 2020, referred to as “First Wave of COVID-19 Pandemic”. The conclusions show that Pakistan orchestrated a coherent response mechanism by creating an effective governance structure, integrating multiple institutions, resorting to smart lockdowns, taking pro-poor economic measures and converting the challenges into opportunities by making indigenous COVID-19 related medical innovations through research universities. Capacity building of testing facilities, protective equipment and specialized patient care coupled with awareness through effective media campaigns paid rich dividends. Implementation of coordinated and effective response measures not only restricted the disease spread but also helped in sustaining the fragile economy of the country</em>.</p> Nayyar Naseer Copyright (c) 2022 https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/104 Wed, 02 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0500 THE DISCOURSE OF CONFLICT AND MEDIA PROPAGANDA: AN ANALYSIS OF THE SELECTED US NEWSPAPER EDITORIALS https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/88 <p><em>The phenomenon of agenda-setting and cognitive hacking is at the heart of the entertainment medium in general and news medium in particular. Mass media has the discretion to choose certain news stories over others. Consequently, it is the media that decide to pick and choose numerous issues and aspects of news. Keeping this in mind, the paper explores propaganda, persuasion, and the operation of power through language in the discourse of conflict. The paper examines the selected editorials of the two mainstream American newspapers i.e. the “New York Times” and the “Washington Post”. The time frame for the collection of data is from turn of the century October 9, 2001 to August, 22 2017. Data has been collected from the archives of the e-papers of the two selected newspapers. Non-probability purposive sampling has been taken into consideration to select the editorials in the light of selected themes such as war on terror, nuclear proliferation, Pakistan’s military, Pakistan and South Asia and the US-Pakistan relations etc. The research is based on the theoretical framework comprising of the works of van Dijk, Laclau and Mouffee and McCombs. The research findings indicate that in the discourse of conflict, there are various linguistic choices, sentence structures and peculiar expressions of language, which are utilized to propagate an agenda, and therefore one-sided account of certain instances become a norm. The study is a testimony to this fact, and that is why in the selected sample language has been exploited to depict a bleak, gloomy and negative side of Pakistan. Pakistan has been portrayed as a country which implicitly and explicitly not just supports but endorses terrorism. Moreover, the use of syntactic style, sentence construction, and the notion of central and floating signifier throw light on the expression of power through language.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Hafsa Mohi-ud-Din; Sarwet Rasul , Muhammad Zeeshan Munir Copyright (c) 2022 ISSRA Papers https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/88 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 MAINSTREAMING CLIMATE CHANGE IN POLICY PROCESSES OF PAKISTAN https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/89 <p><em>Pakistan is highly exposed to increasing threats of climate crisis. Despite growing climatic pressures nationwide, the climate coping mechanisms of the country are extremely weak. This study analyses the process of climate change mainstreaming into Pakistan’s national policy processes by deploying the Action on Climate Today (ACT) Framework consisting three pillars: the entry points, enabling environment and political economy drivers. This is blended with the theoretical assumptions of New-Institutionalism that helps in examining key institutional and policy responses to climate change at all governmental levels of Pakistan. It argues that the mainstreaming of climate change into Pakistan’s national, provincial, and sectoral socio-economic development policies, planning and implementation processes will enhance the country’s resilience against growing climatic challenges. There is meager literature on mainstreaming climate change on Pakistan and this study attempts to fill this gap. The study maps vulnerabilities, challenges and options of mainstreaming climate in planning and policy making of the country. It concludes that despite setting national and international goals regarding climate resilience, there remains an extensive gap between legislative aims and implementation of national policies in Pakistan that needs to be addressed.&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> Samrana Afzal ; Shaheen Akhtar Copyright (c) 2022 ISSRA Papers https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/89 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 CIVIL-MILITARY CONCORDANCE IN PAKISTAN https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/90 <p><em>Civil-military concordance is based on the harmony of interests and values between three important stakeholders, i.e., the political elite, armed forces, and citizens. When these stakeholders develop a harmonious appreciation of their roles and contributions to the nation with a shared understanding of the constitution, a healthy symbiosis of interests and values is engendered, imparting states' desired stability. There are examples of developing countries like Ghana, where weak democratic institutions resulted in frequent military interventions. However, the phenomenon declined after armed forces and civilians fostered a concordance based upon mutual respect, wherein armed forces participated in the defence of the state and nation-building tasks. This paper, therefore, deals with the employment of armed forces on military and non-military tasks, facilitating much-needed concordance in civil-military relations for democratic consolidation and improvement of armed forces’ performance on nation-building and crisis management. It discusses various civil-military concordance models and analyses the best-suited option for Pakistan. Rebecca Schiff’s Concordance Theory, a departure from western models of Huntington, Lasswell, and Finer, contains some elements of Morris Janowitz’s civil-military convergence theory and can be applied to Pakistan’s case. It also highlights the application of four indicators of concordance, i.e., recruitment method, the social composition of officers’ corps, military style, and political decision-making processes, to Pakistan, yielding important conclusions regarding improved civil-military relations.</em></p> Raashid Wali Janjua Copyright (c) 2022 ISSRA Papers https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/90 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 PAKISTAN AND GENDER (IN) SECURITY A NEED ASSESSMENT FOR SECURITIZATION OF GENDER ISSUES https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/92 <p><em>The World Economic Forum in its report, The Global Gender Gap Index 2020, ranked Pakistan at 151th position out of 153 countries just above Iraq and Yemen. Women form almost 50% of Pakistan’s total population yet the laws generally lag in properly addressing crimes that violate or deprive the rights of women and girls in the country. Even the laws designed to address issues related to gender-based violence like the “The Protection Against Harassment of Women at Workplace Act, 2010” lacks in its purview by not granting protection to women who work in informal workplaces. Despite the Constitution of the country granting rights to each citizen irrespective of their gender and status, discrimination and violence against women and girls is pretty pertinent in Pakistan. This paper takes into account the harrowing situation of gender parity in Pakistan by discussing statistics from different reports and studies while illuminating the gap between rhetoric and implementation on state level. And in that context argues that the state should move to ‘securitize’ the issue of ‘Gender (In)security’, given that it concerns a large portion of its population. Gender Security is also an extremely important factor in achievement of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The paper also puts forth recommendations for all three pillars of the state i.e., executive, parliament and judiciary for the addressal of these issues. </em></p> Azeema Ilyas Copyright (c) 2022 ISSRA Papers https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/92 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 THE CHALLENGE OF REFORMING THE FATA REGION OF PAKISTAN: A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF ITS MERGER INTO KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA PROVINCE https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/93 <p><em>Constitutionally speaking, the erstwhile FATA region has always been considered an integral part of Pakistan. However, over the last six decades, this region consistently remained isolated from the national mainstream socio-economic and political life. As a result, it is one of the least developed regions of Pakistan and its governance issues are widespread. Successive Pakistani regimes have attempted different reform packages and development strategies, but it did not substantially transform the region and its governance issues continued. In an attempt to reform and integrate the FATA region into the national mainstream, in 2018, it was merged into the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province. Many have hailed the merger scheme and lots of expectations are associated with it. However, others have criticised these arrangements as insufficient and unsubstantial to meaningfully transform the FATA region. This article critically examines the merger scheme and seeks to explore that how far it is a viable option and will it help in meaningfully mainstreaming the FATA region and solving its multipronged issues. </em></p> Saeed Khan Copyright (c) 2022 ISSRA Papers https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/93 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 REVOLUTION IN MILITARY AFFAIRS: EMERGING AEROSPACE COMBAT TRENDS IN SOUTH ASIA https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/94 <p><em>Technology dictates everything in the modern world but nothing is more technical than the human mind. It always gears up to explore new dimensions of the universe. Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) is the brainchild of a critical human mind that never relies on knowledge at hand and strives for more. Aerospace potential and capabilities have become crucial to modern forces in an age of global reach and South Asia is not an exception in any sense. It is argued that RMA in South Asia is likely to be employed more in aerospace to outmanoeuvre each other (India and Pakistan) in order to carry out rapid offensive operations against the enemy.&nbsp; </em></p> <p><em>This paper examines the emerging trends in aerial combat and military use of space simultaneously with a focus on on-going developments in South Asia. At first, this paper explores the emergence of aerospace potential for military means among major powers during the cold war. Following emerging global aerospace trends, it focuses how it encouraged a shift in strategy and doctrines of India and Pakistan because of drastic change in weaponry and how it created more space for the aerospace domain. Moreover, this paper analyses the defensive potential of arch-rivals India and Pakistan and explores the prospects of the aerospace industry in Pakistan. </em></p> Muhammad Fahim Khan; Ameer Hamza, Sajid Ali Copyright (c) 2022 ISSRA Papers https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/94 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 EVOLVING REGIONAL AND GLOBAL DYNAMICS AND FUTURE OF CPEC https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/105 <p><em>The CPEC is a vital element of BRI. In this paper, an effort was taken to study the evolving regional and global dynamics of the CPEC and its future. China has initiated a mega project named Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) related to infrastructure development and global connectivity. Its development strategy aims to strengthen connectivity and cooperation across six major economic corridors from Singapore to Syria including commercial and cultural transmission routes of the Asian continent connecting the rest of the world. Policy coordination, connectivity of facilities, unhindered trade, people-to-people contacts, and financial integration are the important aspects of BRI. It follows the principles of globalization through international cooperation and interdependence. The goals of the BRI are to foster peace, prosperity, openness, green development, innovation, and a road that unites different civilizations. This study aimed to analyze the geopolitical, geostrategic and geo-economic significance of the BRI along with the convergences and divergences of global and regional stakeholders with a focus on socio-economic development of Pakistan under CPEC. In this study, SWOT analysis was carried out, mainly focusing on the events connected to the CPEC. This project has the potential to integrate geopolitical and geo-economic environment in Asia, the Middle East, Africa and Europe. It is the practical manifestation of China's vision of "Peaceful Rise" and regional integration for a win-win situation for partner countries. CPEC is considered to be the “flagship project” and a game-changer for its potential to link sea and land routes. Nonetheless, this project is planned to be completed by 2030 to generate tangible outcomes. </em></p> Nalinda Niyangoda; Manoaj Keppetipola , Anil Bowatte Copyright (c) 2022 https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/105 Wed, 02 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0500 POST CONFLICT DEVELOPMENT THROUGH HUMAN SECURITY APPROACH IN REMOTE AREAS OF BALOCHISTAN https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/96 <p><em>The Balochistan province has witnessed many insurgencies, over the years, followed each time by an uneasy calm. Historically, these insurgencies have started from relatively inaccessible areas where the writ of the state is weak, which allows miscreants to exploit the feelings of deprivation prevalent within population. This study conjectures that a long lasting peace is not possible in the province unless the core issue of deprivation is not addressed in a meaningful way. It is proposed that the adoption of the human security framework (HSF) developed by the United Nations may be one of the viable options to address this issue which has already been successfully implemented in various countries. The task is no doubt challenging for civil administration, owing to its inability to provide and protect public goods in remote areas, nonetheless the implementation of HSF through a civil-military cooperation (CMIC) is expected to prove as an alternative for civil protection and economic and social stability of the population. This study aims to analyze whether HSF may be effectively implemented in the remote areas of Bolochistan through informal civil-military cooperation. A remote village, Sangan, located in the Sibi district of Balochistan is taken as a case study for this purpose. The study endeavored to collect primary data pertaining to basic facets of life and the progress made in the village through on ground surveys, interactions with local population, and seeking input from civil and military administrations. The analysis reveals that CMIC has contributed significantly towards improving the socio-economic wellbeing of the local population through small, yet inclusive gestures. </em></p> Verda Salman ; Ather Maqsood Ahmed Copyright (c) 2022 ISSRA Papers https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/96 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500 HUMAN WELL-BEING: THE ROLE OF FAMILY INSTITUTION https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/109 <p><em>Family has been the primary institution of human societies for ages. A balanced human life without family can hardly be conceived. The family bonding has started loosening in many societies of the world, due to ultra-liberalist thoughts in the West and, in result thereof, in the rest of the world. The emerging literature indicates that exceeding number of single parents and children being born out of </em><em>wedlock have badly impacted the Western and some of the Eastern societies. Furthermore, over emphasis on nuclear family system, seems to have undermined the traditional status of parents in many societies, and Pakistan is not an exception to it. Islamic family life consists of a comprehensive system of rights and duties of all members in the family. This paper posits that every citizen needs to be educated to understand the quantum of responsibilities related to family life and, thereby, the citizenship. It will not happen automatically, it would require a conscientious effort to educate each citizen to embrace the notions of Islamic family life in true spirit. Life of human beings, as per Islamic concepts, does not end up in this world; rather all revealed religions propound continuity of life even after death. This world-view implies: accepting the Divine scheme of creation of this universe and more so human beings, living in conformity to natural laws and the commandments of the Creator, fostering the fine human attributes and passions of love, mercy, kindness, justice, equity, forgiveness and generosity.&nbsp; Since the family is the closest circle of relations and an institution of common socio-economic and spiritual bonding, all family members are required to give their best to make this life happy, fulfilled and contented.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Manzoor Ahmed Abbasi; Sarfraz Hussain Ansari , Rafaqat Islam Copyright (c) 2022 ISSRA Papers https://issrapapers.ndu.edu.pk/site/article/view/109 Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0500