ISSRA Papers 2023-02-13T10:41:17+05:00 Editor Open Journal Systems <p>ISSRA Papers is an annual publication of Institute for Strategic Studies, Research and Analysis (ISSRA), National Defence University. The Journal is a unique publication of the country which promotes awareness and understanding of the issues related to governance and public policy. ISSRA Papers welcomes contributions from all around the world and has a wide range of readers that include students, researchers, experts and policy makers. Articles appearing in the journal are selected after a rigorous scrutiny and blind peer reviews at home and abroad.</p> JOB STRAIN AND TURNOVER INTENTIONS: EVALUATING IMPACT OF EMOTIONAL EXHAUSTION AND PERCEIVED SUPERVISOR SUPPORT IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY OF PAKISTAN 2023-02-08T11:04:29+05:00 Sarwat Razzaqi Haider Ali Shams Tariq Feroze <p><em>Turnover has been one of the major concerns for organisations since the start of the industrial revolution. Construction project managers and supervisors bear greater job strain (JS) than other fields because of tight deadlines and budgets. This study examines the role of JS in the determination of employees' Turnover Intentions (TIs) with mediating and moderating role of Emotional Exhaustion (EE) and Perceived Supervisor Support (PSS) respectively, specifically in projectized construction organisations in Pakistan. Data for this quantitative study from 181 middle management employees from construction enterprises of Northern Punjab was collected through a questionnaire. The statistical analysis carried out using Baron &amp; Kenny method confirmed that in projectized construction organisations of Pakistan, EE strongly mediates the relationship between JS and TIs. Contrarily, the analysis also indicated that such organisations lack a hypothesised buffering role of PSS between EE and TIs. Conclusively, it has been recommended that employers conduct focused training to determine the well-being of their staff and take extra measures to lessen the JS of employees. This study aims to provide a base for future research on JS and TIs in projectized organisations operating in developing countries. Furthermore, it will help define suitable turnover policies for employees of various sectors and organisations.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Razzaqi, Sarwat, Haider Ali Shams, and Tariq Feroze (2022) “Job Strain and Turnover Intentions: Evaluating Impact of Emotional Exhaustion and Perceived Supervisor Support in the Construction Industry of Pakistan” <em>ISSRA Papers</em>. 14: 1-17.</p> <p> </p> 2023-02-08T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 COMMON ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR COOPERATION BETWEEN PAKISTAN AND INDIA 2023-02-08T11:08:11+05:00 Omair Farooq Khan <p><em>Pakistan and India have been repeatedly enlisted as the most vulnerable countries to climate change. Both countries face a series of common environmental issues owing to climate change, smog, drought and floods, to name a few. However, since the Uri attack in 2016, India has virtually suspended SAARC by not participating in annual summits. Since then, stern gridlock has been witnessed in bilateral relations between Pakistan and India. In this regard, the first half of the paper highlights common environmental issues faced by Pakistan and India and later suggests areas of cooperation to overcome these challenges. The qualitative analysis shows that common environmental challenges faced by Pakistan and India provide an opportunity to break the ice between two neighbouring yet antagonist countries and rejuvenate the bilateral dialogue process. The paper aims to highlight the importance of cooperation over common environmental challenges, which has the potential to end the deadlock between Pakistan and India and spillover cooperation in other areas of common interest.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Khan, Omair Farooq (2022) “Common Environmental Challenges and Opportunities for Cooperation between Pakistan and India” <em>ISSRA Papers</em>. 14: 18-31.</p> 2023-02-08T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 INVESTING IN BLUE ECONOMY: PARALLEL OPTIONS FOR ECONOMIC GROWTH 2023-02-08T11:11:15+05:00 Sehrish Qayyum Abdur Rehman <p><em>Blue Economy is an emerging investment sector as land divides, but sea connects. Human existence is inherently associated with oceans, as 40% of the world's population lives within 100 km of the coast. Growing population and increasing food and energy demands coupled with diminishing land resources have persistently compelled nations to explore alternate means for sustenance and economic development. Since oceans promise both these opportunities, Blue Economy is increasingly emerging as a new hope for tomorrow. The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in 2012, Rio+20, laid the foundation for the Blue Economy to evolve as a viable and sustainable economic model. Potential apart, judicious utilisation of marine resources under enabling environment through sustained policies, requisite investment, effective implementation and regulatory mechanisms is the key to gain economic dividends and providing a livelihood to millions. Although the national maritime and shipping policy was proposed in 2001 and presented in 2021, significant changes and shifts could be implemented in Pakistan's maritime sector. Above all, security management and counter-terrorism efforts are necessary to attract foreign investors to Pakistan. For this purpose, the Qualitative research method through a descriptive-exploratory approach recommends transforming existing maritime sectors by utilising marine resources in sync with policy and organisational reforms. </em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Qayyum, Sehrish and Abdur Rehman (2022) “Investing in Blue Economy: Parallel Options for Economic Growth” <em>ISSRA Papers</em>. 14: 32-49.</p> 2023-02-08T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 CONTEMPORARY WESTERN THOUGHT AND PAKISTANI WOMEN: CHALLENGES AND RESPONSE 2023-02-08T11:35:29+05:00 Salma Razzaq <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><em>The gaps in compliance with Islamic principles enable contemporary western thoughts about women to constitute a unique threat to muslim societies like Pakistan. This study investigates the sociocultural milieu of Pakistani women, focusing on the factors that have allowed secular western thought to penetrate the minds of muslim women in the country. The research established that patriarchal Pakistani society hampers the practical application of Islamic teachings in women's rights, creating a space for western ideas to gain traction among Pakistan's muslim female population. The research identifies challenges in sociocultural and ideological/religious contexts posed by contemporary feminist thought. It offers recommendations to reign the desire for unchecked liberty and the quest for gender equality. Qualitative methodology with an analytical research approach has been used to examine the internal dynamics through available data about the sociocultural environment in Pakistani society juxtaposed contemporary western thought on women regarding Western authors concerning women for identifying the challenges.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Razzaq, Salma (2022) “Contemporary Western Thought and Pakistani Women: Challenges and Response” <em>ISSRA Papers</em>. 14: 50-60.</p> 2023-02-08T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 NANOTECHNOLOGY AND ITS POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS FOR ENHANCING PAKISTAN'S ECONOMIC SECURITY 2023-02-13T10:36:32+05:00 Fahham Bin Sultan Rafaqat Islam Sarfraz Hussain Ansari <p><em>Due to persistent underperformance, Pakistan's national economy may be considered an Achilles heel of the country's security, which needs immediate course correction towards sustainable growth. Cutting-edge technologies like Nanotechnology (NT) are one avenue which presents the promise to provide our national economy with desired growth stimulus if efficiently employed. NT is a broad-based technology with potential applications in nearly every sector of the national economy. It can radically transform various sectors by creating an environment where responsible and societally responsive innovation can improve productivity and enhance economic opportunities. However, there are challenges associated with the acquisition and use of nanotechnology. This paper is envisaged to highlight the importance of nanotechnology, present viable recommendations to avail the potential opportunities, and indicate how to overcome the associated challenges.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Sultan, Bin Fahham, Rafaqat Islam and Sarfraz Hussain Ansari (2022) “Nanotechnology and its Potential Applications for Enhancing Pakistan's Economic Security” <em>ISSRA Papers</em>. 14: 61-72.</p> 2023-02-13T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ROLE OF PEACEFUL NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY IN THE AGRICULTURE AND FOOD SECTOR OF PAKISTAN 2023-02-08T11:21:47+05:00 Muhammad Muzamal <p><em>The primary emphasis of the study is to evaluate that Pakistan is using peaceful nuclear technology to fulfil its domestic needs of agriculture and food. This study also evaluates that Pakistan has vast experience using peaceful nuclear technology. Pakistan can advance in food production and quality products if the international community opens its door to Pakistan. Pakistan believes sharing peaceful nuclear technology can overcome food shortages by improving the agricultural and industrial sectors. Four Nuclear Agriculture Institutes are working under the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) umbrella. Pakistan is moving forward to introduce and modernise drone technology in the agriculture sector to save crops from insects and pesticides as a part of food security. PAEC is playing a vital role in transferring nuclear technology for peaceful purposes.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Muzamal, Muhammad (2022) “Role of Peaceful Nuclear Technology in the Agriculture and Food Sector of Pakistan” <em>ISSRA Papers</em>. 14: 73-84.</p> 2023-02-08T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 ROLE OF SMALL-SCALE INDUSTRIES AND POLICIES IN DEVELOPMENT: A COMPARISON BETWEEN PAKISTAN AND JAPAN 2023-02-08T11:25:11+05:00 Nabeel ul Rehman <p><em>This article aims to study and analyse small-scale industrial policy links between Pakistan and Japan. Pakistan and Japan both began with comparable difficulties. World War II ripped the Japanese economy apart. Pakistan gained independence and faced a very immature economy with a small industrial base. Pakistan has significant agricultural resources as raw materials. On the other hand, Japan transformed the military-trained society into a highly successful industrial labour and entrepreneur nation. However, Pakistan has ignored human resource development while altering economic strategies; unfortunately, without any government planning or support, tiny enterprises in Pakistan thrived independently. This article will provide a short overview of the rise of micro industries in Pakistan, government policies, and a comparison of Pakistani small industries with those in Japan. The research reveals how different industrial policies in Japan have paid sufficient emphasis on the development of small enterprises, which they deem crucial for the progress of their economy and a good source of job creation, and Pakistan is lacking behind. At last, a comparative analysis of the role of ministries in industrial policy development and labour laws was discussed as to how to enhance industrial production, and employment generation, with labour welfare as part of industrial policy.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Rehman, ul Nabeel (2022) “Role of Small-Scale Industries and Policies in Development: A Comparison between Pakistan and Japan” <em>ISSRA Papers</em>. 14: 85-98.</p> 2023-02-08T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023 SECURITY FRAMEWORK ANALYSIS: EVIDENCE FROM BADRA AND SANGAN VILLAGES IN BALOCHISTAN 2023-02-13T10:41:17+05:00 Verda Salman Farah Naz <p><em>This paper aims to draw a comparative analysis of two villages in Balochistan: Sangan and Badra, which remained the epicentre of terrorist activities in the Sibi and Harnai</em> d<em>istricts. An effort was carried out by Law Enforcement Agencies (LEA) to </em><em>establish the writ of government by setting up permanent check posts in the area and gaining the confidence of the local populace. The effort has borne some fruit slowly and steadily, but terrorists remain a constant threat in the region. With the presence of LEA in these villages, the local population satisfaction ratio regarding their well-being, safety and security fluctuate. This study based on exploratory research brings a novel investigation of Sangan and Badra villages due to the sensitive nature of their locations. After the deployment of LEA from 2018 to 2021, researchers surveyed both villages to gauge the local populace's confidence in government institutions and security agencies' presence and its impact on their well-being. The results show that there has been some connection between the presence of security forces in these villages and the general confidence, well-being and satisfaction ratio of the public sentiments.</em></p> <p> </p> <p><strong>Bibliography Entry</strong></p> <p>Salman, Verda and Farah Naz (2022) “Security Framework Analysis: Evidence from Badra and Sangan Villages in Balochistan” <em>ISSRA Papers</em>. 14: 99-107.</p> 2023-02-13T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2023