ISSRA Papers 2024-07-05T12:35:50+05:00 Editor Open Journal Systems <p>ISSRA Papers is an annual publication of <a href="">Institute for Strategic Studies, Research and Analysis (ISSRA)</a>, National Defence University. The Journal is a unique publication of the country which promotes awareness and understanding of the issues related to governance and public policy. ISSRA Papers welcomes contributions from all around the world and has a wide range of readers that include students, researchers, experts and policy makers. Articles appearing in the journal are selected after a rigorous scrutiny and blind peer reviews at home and abroad. The Higher Education Commission of Pakistan duly recognises its regular publishing since 2009 and indexes it in its Journal Recognition System (HJRS).</p> A CONFLICT OF PRESTIGE AND INTERESTS: ICJ, SOUTH ASIA AND MIDDLE EAST 2024-07-05T09:09:49+05:00 Mr. Ubaid Ud Din Ms. Rukhsana Rajput <p>The paper refers to the conundrum that the International Court of Justice (ICJ) faces and highlights that the shortcomings are mostly its own doing which are politically motivated and same is the clout that does not allow it to serve justice and achieve its objective of <br>bringing peace and stability to the world. The paper illustrates the recent high-profile case of Indian RAW agent Kulbhushan Jadhav and how India bringing into play inbuilt loopholes of ICJ’s procedures and structural anomalies tried to get its desired judgment from the world court but failed miserably and exposed itself to the world. It was also an eye opener for decision-makers in the Indian hierarchy who thought it enjoys cordial relations with most of the VETO wilding countries in the United Nations Security Council. The case also highlights the state of relationship between Pakistan and India and how these relations would shape after ICJ’s decision; because this case was approached from the Indian side with a very narrow prism whereas, for Pakistan, it opened new doors to resuscitate contentious issues and conflicts that it faces with its neighbours at global institutions including ICJ and influence court’s decision. It can be safely said that this decision has dented the nonpartisan and neutral reputation of ICJ and cemented opinions of its critics that ICJ is monopolized. ICJ needs to follow legal norms and practices and there is a need of drastic changes in its overall design and the way it conducts its business.</p> 2024-07-05T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 DEVELOPING DIGITAL LEADERSHIP PRACTICES IN MILITARY: A WAY FORWARD 2024-07-05T09:16:16+05:00 Mr. Jawad Mahroof Ms. Rabbia Javaid <p>Military leadership today deals with a plethora of information related to its on-field and offthe-field operations that are complex in nature and needs critical thinking which can affect the decision-making process. Information overload is a phenomenon that creates <br>uncertainty and ambiguity in decision-making. Losing direction is very likely in such situations as it could be an issue for the leadership to keep track of what needs to be contained and what needs to be discarded from the chunks of information received continuously. Building adaptive and agile leadership is imperative to technology adaption in the military as digital decision-making and a tech-savvy culture will be key attributes of the future. Adapting digital technologies will help fight and win wars in the digital era and military leadership must learn the digital leadership skills to win the fights driven by technology. With the future of warfare going digital, knowledge-based decision-making will be a valuable asset as these capabilities will become a necessity in times to come. Information control will play a pivotal role in digital leadership and digital leadership combined with the foresight and experience of the commanders can help tackle fifthgeneration warfare.</p> 2024-07-05T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 INSTALLATIONS OF THE JUDICIAL SETUP IN THE NEWLY MERGED AREAS OF ERSTWHILE FATA: THE FUTURE OF JIRGA 2024-07-05T09:22:39+05:00 Mr. Hameed Ullah Khan Dr. Manzoor Khan Afridi Mr. Shan Zeb <p>The Pashtun Jirga, a traditional dispute resolution system, has historically played a crucial role in promoting peace and resolving conflicts within Pashtun communities. However, the recent installation of a formal judicial system in the merged areas of the <br>former Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) in Pakistan raises questions about the future of the Jirga. This study examines the significance of the Jirga in Pashtun society and analyses the potential impact of the new judicial system on its continued existence. The research concludes that the formal system has had minimal influence on the prevalence of the Jirga primarily due to two factors: The local population is accustomed to and trusts the traditional Jirga system. Certain complex cases in the region prove challenging for the formal system to handle effectively, necessitating the assistance of the Jirga. Based on these findings, the study recommends the coexistence of both the Jirga and the judicial system. This approach would enable the region to benefit from the strengths of both traditional and formal systems, ultimately contributing to lasting peace and security.</p> 2024-07-05T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 MODERNISING PAKISTAN’S SHIPPING REGULATIONS AND TRADE FACILITATION AUTHORITIES UNDER CONVENTION ON THE FACILITATION OF INTERNATIONAL MARITIME TRAFFIC 1965 2024-07-05T09:27:24+05:00 Syed Abdullah Anwer <p>A developing maritime economy like Pakistan can greatly benefit from the comprehensive framework of standards, guidelines, and recommended practices provided by the modern and comprehensive provisions of the Convention on the Facilitation of International <br>Maritime Traffic 1965 (FALC). This study’s objective is to analyse the FALC’s legal provisions and Pakistan's domestic maritime law in relation to ship and port juncture activities in order to make recommendations for updating the country's current statutory rules and regulations in line with international standards, conventions and practices. According to the study, the FALC has significantly facilitated international maritime traffic through the harmonisation and standardisation of its port and shipping procedures. Following the FALC's and the facilitation committee's approved guidelines will improve Pakistan's overall competitive standing as an emerging regional shipping hub, especially under the long term plan for China Pakistan Economic Corridor. Furthermore, it will also allow Pakistan to sustainably transform into a significant maritime transit trade centre in the Western Indian Ocean Region.</p> 2024-07-05T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 UNVEILING THE MARITIME OPPORTUNITIES: ANALYSING THE BLUE ECONOMY POTENTIAL WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE CHINA-PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR 2024-07-05T12:35:50+05:00 Dr. Salma Naz Dr. Muhammad Imran Rashid <p><em>Earth is called "the blue planet "because 70% surface consists of water. The ocean is vital to the world's economy approximately 3.5 billion people depend on the ocean for the sustenance of their lives and livelihoods. Having about 1,050 km long coastline and the Exclusive Economic Zone covering about 240,000 sq. km. Pakistan is a key maritime country in the Indian Ocean. Pakistan has immense potential in the blue economy the only possibility for Pakistan to sustain its deteriorating economy is to focus on the growth of its blue economy. In this connection, the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) not only boosts the traditional economy of Pakistan but also can play a vital role in the growth of the blue economy. This study explores the potential of the blue economy for Pakistan from the perspective of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor. The nature of the research is qualitative and the case study method is applied to the present study. Descriptive and exploratory approaches are applied to discover the answers to the research questions and analysis of this study will help to find out many possible findings of the Potential of the Blue economy of Pakistan in perspective of the CPEC.</em></p> 2024-07-05T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 UNRAVELLING THE ESSENCE OF ISLAMIC ART: EXPLORING ILM AL-JAMAL, IHSAN, AND THE COMPLEX DYNAMICS OF CONSTRUCTIVIST POWER POLITICS 2024-07-05T11:54:40+05:00 Dr. Huma Javed <p>Islamic art has been extensively studied from various perspectives, including art, history, anthropology, and cultural studies. This artistic tradition encompasses diverse forms that is influenced by religion, culture, and historical frameworks. It is not limited to religious art or art created solely by and for Muslims. To better understand this complex tradition, a critical revaluation is required. This research aims to analyse the concepts of Ilm al-Jamâl (the knowledge of beauty) and Ihsan (excellence or perfection) within Islamic art. Ilm al-Jamâl reflects the belief that natural beauty reflects the divine beauty of God, while Ihsan represents spiritual excellence and the pursuit of moral and ethical perfection. It explores the interplay between these concepts and examines how political and power dynamics have impacted Islamic art theory. Employing qualitative research methods, including literature review and analysis, within an interpretive and constructivist theoretical context, the research aims to provide a comprehensive framework. Through an interdisciplinary approach, the study seeks to illuminate Islamic art, exposing its multifaceted nature as a reflection of religious, cultural, and political identities.</p> 2024-07-05T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024 WALLOPING NEGATIVE TRENDS IN PAKISTAN’S YOUTH THROUGH SPORTS: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES 2024-07-05T12:29:11+05:00 Muhammad Wasiq Khan Dr. Khalid Mahmood Shafi Muhammad Tariq Niaz <p>Sports have been recognised as an integral part of human life, and their significance cannot be overstated. In Pakistan, however, sports have not been accorded due importance, which has had a negative impact on the country’s youth. Sport for Development and Peace (SDP) is a popular way to address variety of social issues, especially in regions afflicted by negative tendencies. Numerous peace and development organisations, including the United Nations and international development agencies, have acknowledged sports as a significant social catalyst. Pakistan is globally tagged for negativity since there is a dearth of literature that corroborates its positive aspects. This country has been a world champion in four sports, and its gloom-ridden image has overshadowed such positive aspects of Pakistan. This research paper explores the challenges and opportunities of using sports to address negative trends in Pakistan’s youth. This paper is an effort to introduce the concept of sport for peace and development, as well as a demonstration of how sport may help create peace, promote a favourable global image, and involve Pakistani youth in constructive activities. The paper in <br>the beginning highlights sports’ significance for a nation, then illustrates the sports landscape in Pakistan. It then delves into the challenges faced by Pakistani youth in terms of physical fitness and mental health. Since Pakistan is a sports-loving nation, there is a dire need to revive the sports culture in Pakistan to engage its youth in constructive activities for pragmatic outcomes. The paper concludes by highlighting the opportunities that lie ahead by fostering the sports spirit through the collaboration of the government, private sector, community, and civil society.</p> 2024-07-05T00:00:00+05:00 Copyright (c) 2024